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A comprehensive study of the antiplasmodial effects of Artemisia spp. infusions against multiple parasite developmental stages including hypnozoite

Abstract : My PhD thesis entitled ‘A comprehensive study of the antiplasmodial effects of Artemisia spp. infusions against multiple parasite developmental stages including hypnozoite’. The dormant liver resident parasite is called hypnozoite which can linger for weeks to months, and then relapse to cause recurrent blood stage infection. This hypnozoite reservoir is one of the critical barriers towards malaria eradication, mainly due to the lack of mass medication with a drug that can clear the hypnozoites in the liver. There is a dire need for the development of new hypnozoite-killing drugs but phenotypic screens are hindered by a lack of in vitroculture platforms. Under conventional culture conditions, hypnozoite cultures are often contaminated. This effect partially arises from infection with unpurified sporozoites that adversely affect the hepatocytes culture. Addressing this issue, in chapter 1, firstly I focused on the development of a short protocol with an antimicrobial cocktail, methyl paraben and penicillin streptomycin in a supplementation with sucrose solution that ensure yeast free sporozoite production in the salivary glands. In chapter 2, I tried to describe the research objectives, methodology and findings of the experiments. After developing a robust culture strategy, I moved on drug screening against the hypnozoite stage. We selected two Artemisia sp. A. annuaandA. afra. Aqueousinfusions prepared from them and were tested against the hepatic stage of all Plasmodiumsp. The reasoning behind these plant selections have been described in detail in this manuscript. I found a strong antimalarial activity of Artemisia infusions that blocked the relpase causing hypnozoite formation and cleared the liver parasites. In chapter 3, I described the effect in more detail. We believe that this profound inhibitory activity of Artemisia infusion is partially mediated by the disruption of the biogenesis of apicoplast and mitochondria. In chapter 4, I showed various confocal images of apicoplast disruption and quantitative PCR data of apicoplast DNA confirm our observation. Drug resistance to P. falciparum is a growing problem in Southeast Asia. New drugs are required to solve the problem. In chapter 5, I described in vitro activity of Artemisia infusions against the drug resistant P. falciparum isolates. It can be noted that the in vitroantimalarial effect that I observed in the liver and blood stage of Plasmodium was not artemisinin dependent asA. afracontains negligible amount of artemisinin but showed potent inhibitory activity.This is the first indication that compounds other than 8 aminoquinolines and artemisinin could be effective against the relapsing malaria and overcome the antimlarail drug resistance.
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Submitted on : Thursday, July 7, 2022 - 1:01:53 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03715926, version 1

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Kutub Ashraf. A comprehensive study of the antiplasmodial effects of Artemisia spp. infusions against multiple parasite developmental stages including hypnozoite. Parasitology. Sorbonne Université, 2021. English. ⟨NNT : 2021SORUS188⟩. ⟨tel-03715926⟩

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