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Gene expression and genetic divergence in oak species highlight adaptive genes to soil water constraints

Abstract : Drought and waterlogging impede tree growth and may even lead to tree death. Oaks, an emblematic group of tree species, have evolved a range of adaptations to cope with these constraints. The two most widely distributed European species, pedunculate (Quercus robur L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea Matt. Lieb), have overlapping ranges, but their respective distribution are highly constrained by local soil conditions. These contrasting ecological preferences between two closely related and frequently hybridizing species constitute a powerful model to explore the functional bases of the adaptive responses in oak. We exposed oak seedlings to waterlogging and drought, conditions typically encountered by the two species in their respective habitats, and studied changes in gene expression in roots using RNA-seq. We identified genes that change in expression between treatments differentially depending on species. These "species x environment"-responsive genes revealed adaptive molecular strategies involving adventitious and lateral root formation, aerenchyma formation in pedunculate oak, and osmoregulation and ABA regulation in sessile oak. With this experimental design, we also identified genes with different expression between species independently of water conditions imposed. Surprisingly, this category included genes with functions consistent with a role in intrinsic reproductive barriers. Finally, we compared our findings with those for a genome scan of species divergence and found that the expressional candidate genes included numerous highly differentiated genetic markers between the two species. By combining transcriptomic analysis, gene annotation, pathway analyses, as well as genome scan for genetic differentiation among species, we were able to highlight loci likely involved in adaptation of the two species to their respective ecological niches.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03771214
Contributeur : gregoire Le Provost Connectez-vous pour contacter le contributeur
Soumis le : vendredi 30 septembre 2022 - 17:11:57
Dernière modification le : lundi 14 novembre 2022 - 01:28:07

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Distributed under a Creative Commons Paternité 4.0 International License

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Grégoire Le Provost, Benjamin Brachi, Isabelle Lesur, Céline Lalanne, Karine Labadie, et al.. Gene expression and genetic divergence in oak species highlight adaptive genes to soil water constraints. Plant Physiology, 2022, 10, pp.1531. ⟨10.1093/plphys/kiac420/6692722⟩. ⟨hal-03771214⟩

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